Jupiter vs Zeus compares the strengths and weaknesses of the two chief gods of Roman and Greek mythologies. Since the Romans heavily borrowed from Greek mythology, most of their deities have Greek equivalents and Jupiter is no exception.
Jupiter is a carbon copy of Zeus; sharing all his attributes, power, and dominion. Keep reading this article to understand how they had some differences and that is how we will explore and explain.
Jupiter vs Zeus Comparison Table
|Physical Attributes||Vague||Vivid Description|
|Interference in Human Affairs||Moderate||Many|
|Mythology||Influenced by Zeus||Original|
|Kingdom||Ruled from Capitoline Hill||Ruled from Mount Olympus|
What Are the Differences Between Jupiter and Zeus?
The main difference between Jupiter vs Zeus is the period in which each god ruled their respective pantheons. Greek mythology predates that of the Romans by, at least, 1000 years, thus the Greek god is older than Jupiter by a millennium. Other differences are in their origin, appearance, and activities.
What Is Jupiter Best Known For?
Jupiter was best known as the main god of the Roman state religion for centuries until Christianity took over. Jupiter’s main weapon was the thunderbolt and because of the eagle’s dominance in the air, he adopted the bird as his symbol.
Jupiter as Jove
He was also known as Jove, he helped in instituting the laws governing the Roman religion such as how to perform sacrifices or offerings. Some Romans coins often had the thunderbolt and the eagle as a representation of Jupiter.
The Romans swore oaths by Jove and he was seen as the upholder of good governance and justice. He was also a member of the Capitoline Triad, alongside Juno and Minerva, who inhabited Capitoline Hill where the Arx was located. As part of the Triad, Jove’s main function was the protection of the state.
Like Zeus’ origin, the birth of Jupiter was eventful as he fought several wars to establish his supremacy in ancient Rome. Each market day, a bull was sacrificed to Jupiter and the ritual was supervised by the wife of the Flamen Dialis, the chief priest of the flamines. When Jupiter was consulted, he made his will known to the citizens through priests known as augurs. Compared to Zeus, Jupiter was less promiscuous though he also had several affairs outside his marriage.
Jupiter Had Numerous Sexual Relations
Though Zeus got married to his sister, Hera, he had other wives and sexual escapades. Jupiter, however, had only one wife, Juno, but had other consorts such as Io, Alcmene, and Ganymede. Some of these relationships drew the ire of his wife Juno who became filled with jealousy and sought out these women and their offspring to kill. A prime example is the story of Alcmene and her son Hercules who faced many obstacles all his life owing to Juno’s anger.
According to Roman mythology, Jupiter fell for the human Alcmene and ordered the sun not to shine for three consecutive days. Thus, Jupiter spent three nights with Alcmene and the result was the birth of Hercules.
Juno learned of her husband’s infidelity and sent two snakes to kill the infant Hercules but the boy crushed the serpents to death. Unsatisfied, Juno hounded Hercules and set up various seemingly impossible tasks for the boy but he overcame all of them.
Another example is the affair between the Roman god and Io, the daughter of the river god Inachus. To prevent Juno from suspecting anything, Jupiter transformed Io into a white heifer but Juno saw through Jupiter’s action and abducted the heifer.
Juno then tasked Argos, the god with the 100 eyes, to guard the heifer, but Mercury killed Argos which angered Juno. She then sent a gadfly to sting but the heifer escaped to Egypt where Jupiter turned her into a human.
How Jupiter Came to Be the Chief God
According to Roman myth, Jupiter was born to Saturn, the god of the sky, and Opis, mother earth. A prophecy was foretold that one of Saturn’s offspring would overthrow him, so he ate his children as soon as they were born. However, when Jupiter was born, Opis hid him and gave a rock instead to Saturn, who swallowed it whole. As soon as he did, he threw up all the children he had eaten, and together, the children overthrew him, led by Jupiter.
Jupiter took control of the sky and the heavens, making him the chief god of the Roman pantheon. His brother, Neptune, was given dominion over the seas and freshwater while Pluto was allowed to rule the Underworld. The children then sent their father, Saturn, into exile thus gaining freedom from his tyranny.
What Is Zeus Best Known For?
Zeus is best known for influencing the mythology of Jupiter having appeared in Greek myths about 1000 years earlier. Many of Zeus’ attributes, power, and dominion were inherited by Jupiter, including Zeus’ weaknesses. Even the story surrounding Jupiter’s birth was copied from Zeus’ origins but slightly different.
The Birth of Zeus
Cronus, the Titan, and Gaia, mother Earth, gave birth to 11 children but Cronus ate all of them due to a prophecy that his offspring would overthrow him. Thus, when Zeus was born, Gaia hid him and presented a rock wrapped in swaddling clothes to Cronus.
Gaia then took the young Zeus to the island of Crete till he grew up. Once he was grown, Zeus managed to end up in Cronus’ palace as his cupbearer without Cronus recognizing him.
Zeus then gave Cronus something to drink which caused him to throw up all the children he had swallowed. Zeus and his siblings, with the aid of the Hecantochires and Cyclopes, overthrew Cronus and his siblings known as the Titans.
The war, known as the Titanomachy, lasted for 10 years with Zeus and his army becoming victorious and establishing their rule. Zeus became the chief of the Greek gods and god of the sky, while his brothers Poseidon and Hades became the gods of the sea and underworld respectively.
Zeus Ensured that Fate Came to Pass
The Greek god was famous for standing his ground despite persuasion and trickery from his fellow gods and ensuring that fate came to pass. He didn’t have the power to determine or alter fate as that belonged to the Moirae.
However, after the Moirae had done its work, it was the duty of Zeus to make sure that destiny was fulfilled. In many Greek myths, other deities tried to alter fate because of their interest in certain mortals but they were mostly unsuccessful.
Zeus Was More Promiscuous Than Jupiter
Jupiter had only one wife and a few concubines when compared to Zeus’s six wives and many concubines. This resulted in a plethora of children of Zeus – a phenomenon which angered his first wife Hera. Zeus will sometimes transfer into a bull and mate with mortals, giving rise to half-humans half-deities referred to as demigods. Some records suggest that Zeus had 92 children which is far more than the few Jupiter could muster.
Zeus Had More Physical Attributes
Ancient Greek writers took the trouble to describe the physical appearance of Zeus while the physical attributes of Jupiter were scarcely mentioned. Zeus was often described as an old man with a sturdy physique, dark curly hair, and a full greyish beard. He was handsome and had blue eyes that emitted flashes of lightning. Virgil in his Aeneid described Jupiter as a man of wisdom and prophecy but with no physical attributes.
What Is the Difference Between Jupiter vs Odin?
The major difference is that the Jupiter god was the immortal king of the Roman deities while Odin was mortal and would die at Ragnarok. Another difference is in their morality; Jupiter had many affairs with both goddesses and humans while Odin did not concern himself with such affairs. Also, Jupiter wielded more power than his Norse counterpart.
What Is the Similarity Between Jupiter vs Zeus vs Odin
The main similarity is that all these deities were the leaders of their respective pantheons and were very powerful. Other Zeus and Jupiter similarities include their symbols, weapons, dominion, and morality.
What Is the Difference Between Zeus vs Poseidon
Though the deities are siblings of the same parents, that is just about the only similarity there is between the pair. There are myriad differences, but the major one is their area abode and dominion; Zeus is the god of the sky while Poseidon is the god of the sea and freshwater.
As demonstrated in this Jupiter vs Zeus review, both deities have striking similarities and differences due to the Romans copying from the Greeks. Though both Creators were gods of the sky and the leader of their respective pantheons, Zeus was much older than the god Jupiter. Also, the Roman god had lesser physical attributes than Zeus because the Roman writers were more concerned with his works than his physique.
Zeus also had more wives, concubines, and children than his Roman counterpart but Jupiter played more roles in the state religion of Rome than Zeus. However, both deities shared similar stories in their respective mythographies.